The human brain is the most powerful and complex organ in the body. It controls everything we think, say, and do.
It controls our emotional responses, our memories, our personalities, our habits, our decisions, and our overall well-being.
Our brains are divided into parts that control different functions. These parts work together to perform all of the tasks mentioned above.
The frontal lobe is one of the most important areas of the brain. It is known as the executive suite because it controls almost all brain activity.
This includes decision-making, emotional responses, behavior patterns, and more. When something affects this area of the brain, drastic changes occur that can lead to neurological disorders such as depression or dementia.
If you are experiencing symptoms such as changes in moods or loss of motivation, your doctor may run some tests to check if there is anything wrong in your frontal lobe.
The occipital lobes are located at the back of the brain, just above the nape of the neck. The occipital lobes contain both the visual cortex, which processes visual information, and the adjoining areas that process non-visual information such as smell and touch.
Damage to these areas can have a wide range of effects. People may lose their vision entirely, or may no longer be able to process certain sensory inputs such as texture or movement. Some people with damage to these regions experience hallucinations, particularly in low light environments. Others may experience altered sleep patterns or mood changes such as depression or anxiety.
People with Alzheimer’s disease tend to exhibit particular difficulty with memory and navigation, which are functions related to the occipital lobes. However, these symptoms can also be due to other factors.
The temporal lobes are a pair of structures located on the sides of the brain, just behind the ears. They contain the primary auditory cortex, where language comprehension and recognition occurs, as well as the memory-related Hippocampus and other structures.
A unique feature of the temporal lobes is that they contain multiple distinct functional regions that have no parallel in any other part of the brain.
These include the amygdala, which processes emotional responses like fear and anxiety, the entorhinal cortex, which is involved in memory function, and the parahippocampal place area (PPA), which plays a role in spatial perception.
These special regions play an important role in emotional processing, memory, and spatial perception, all of which are critical for executive function.
As such, damage to these areas can lead to impairments in executive function depending on how severe it is.
The cerebrum, or what most people refer to as the brain, is divided into two hemispheres and four lobes. Each lobe has a specific function, and some have multiple functions.
The frontal lobe is associated with behavior and memory, as well as executive function, which includes planning and regulating behavior.
The parietal lobe is associated with sensory information including touch and spatial orientation.
The temporal lobe is associated with hearing and memory.
The occipital lobe is associated with vision.
All of these lobes work together to perform their individual functions which contribute to overall brain activity. For example, the frontal lobe helps plan behavior while the parietal lobe helps with spatial orientation.
Back of the brain
The back part of the brain, also known as the brainstem, controls basic functions like breathing, sleeping, and eating. It also regulates our subconscious behaviors like blinking and jerking our legs when we’re asleep.
This area of the brain is called the limbic system. It’s made up of several areas that control different emotions like the hypothalamus (which controls sexual behavior), the amygdala (which controls fear), and the hippocampus (which controls memory).
The newest part of our brain is called the neocortex. It’s a thick layer of neural tissue that covers the outside of the brain and is responsible for higher thinking functions like language and problem solving. This is why we call it “neo”-cortex, because it is new compared to other parts of the brain.
The cortex isn’t just one uniform layer; there are many different layers within it that each perform different functions.
The basal ganglia is one of the major structures in the brain that controls and regulates movement. It is a group of neurons located in the cerebral cortex, specifically in the frontal lobe.
This group of neurons includes the globus pallidus, the internal segment of the globus pallidus, the substantia nigra, and the enthorhinal cortex. The basal ganglia receives input from other parts of the brain and sends output to other parts of the brain to regulate movement.
In addition to regulating movements such as walking or running, balancing, and turning your head, the basal ganglia also control other functions such as emotions and memory. This is why some symptoms of movement disorders include changes in mood or personality or memory problems.
Specialized cells called astrocytes surround and support neurons in various parts of the brain includingthe basal ganglia.
The hippocampus is a region of the brain that’s involved in memory formation and spatial navigation.
This structure is part of the medial temporal lobe, which is located in the innermost part of the brain. The hippocampus receives input from other parts of the brain and integrates that information to form new memories or recall older memories.
The hippocampus also plays a role in spatial navigation by creating a map of the surrounding environment and helping you navigate from one place to another. For example, it helps you remember where rooms are located inside of a building and how to get from one place to another.
Amnesia can result from damage to the hippocampus, either due to disease or a traumatic event such as a car accident. This can lead to symptoms such as difficulty forming new memories or recalling older memories. Amnesia can be partial or complete, depending on the severity.
The amygdala is part of the limbic system and is sometimes referred to as the “emotional center” of the brain. It is a pair of structures located deep in the brain, one on each side.
It plays a role in processing memory, including fear memories. The amygdala is active during states of emotion such as fear, anger, and anxiety.
This part of the brain may play a role in depression and other mood disorders. People who have suffered from depression may experience changes in their emotional memory as a result.
The amygdala works with other parts of the brain to process emotions and memory, including physical responses such as sweat and blush responses. This area of the brain is very important in regulating stress and protective behavior.
The brain stem is the lowest portion of the brain. It connects the brain to the spinal cord. The brain stem is also called the cervical spine because it consists of the first few vertebrae of the spinal column.
This part of the brain controls essential functions such as breathing, sleeping, and waking. It also controls certain reflexes and helps coordinate movements and balance.
Damage to the brain stem can lead to serious consequences. Because this part of the brain controls so many basic functions, any damage can have a wide range of effects. Some disorders that can occur due to damage to the brain stem include Parkinson’s disease, sleep disorders, tremors, and muscle stiffness.
Dementia can also be caused by damage to thebrain stem.