A fascinating and important phenomenon that occurs in our world is the existence of matter. Matter is anything that has a physical presence, like a ball, a river, or yourself.
Matter can be in several forms, like solid, liquid, and gas. These forms are determined by how much space matter takes up and how it behaves. For example, a solid form of matter has a defined shape and form and does not flow like a liquid or gas would.
The study of matter is called chemistry. A branch of chemistry that deals with the properties of atoms and molecules is called chemical physics. These scientists study the interactions between matter and energy to understand our world better.
Calculate the weight of a proton
A proton is one of the building blocks of an atom. Atoms are made up of electrons, protons, and neutrons. Protons are the nucleus of an atom, which means it is the part that contains the most mass.
To calculate the weight of a proton, you would need to know the size of a proton and the number of protons in that size.
A diameter measurement of a proton is around 1 nanometer. A nanometer is one-billionth of a meter.
Find the charge of a proton
To find the strength of an electric field that will balance the weight of a proton, you need to know its charge. How do you find the charge of a proton?
You can’t see protons, so how can you tell how many protons an atom has? You can use two methods: isotope enrichment and mass spectrometry.
Isotope enrichment involves exposing the atom to a special chemical that adds a few extra protons or neutrons. If this chemical is used in sufficient amounts, it will change the atomic weight by at least one unit.
Mass spectrometry uses electric and magnetic fields to separate all of the atoms into individual particles. An instrument measures the masses of all of these particles and puts them together to get the total atomic weight.
Determine the electric field needed to balance the weight of a proton
Now that you know the weight of a proton, you can find the electric field needed to balance its weight. An electric field that balances the weight of a proton is one where a net force of one newton acts on a proton for a distance of one meter.
You already know that the mass of a proton is 938 billion amu, or 1,836 times the mass of an electron. Since you already calculated the electron’s mass in the above section, you can use this number to find the total mass of protons in 1 liter of pure water.
There are approximately 3.8 x 10^23 atoms/cm^3 in liquid water, which means there are 3.8 x 10^24 atoms/ml of water. Multiply this by 1 L to get the total number of atoms in 1 L (1 liter) of water—that number is 3.8 x 10^24 as well.
Understand why this number is important
Now that you can calculate the strength of an electric field that will balance the weight of a proton, let’s discuss why this is such an important discovery.
Electric fields are all around us, in every environment. Knowing how to calculate the strength of an electric field that will balance the weight of a proton will help you understand how particles respond to these fields.
For example, if you know the strength of the electric field in your bathroom, you can brush your hair without turning on the water because you know what effect the field has on your hair. You can also avoid getting wet because you know how to avoid the electric field in the bathroom.
Additionally, knowing how to identify what particle responds to what electric field can help doctors diagnose health problems like cancer. By knowing which cells are affected by which electric fields, doctors can better treat patients.
Know how to apply this concept
Now that you understand how to determine the strength of an electric field needed to balance the weight of a proton, let’s discuss how you can apply this knowledge.
First, you should know that this idea is more theoretical than practical. It is more useful as a discussion topic or theory than it is in real life applications. This is because it is hard to find situations where only electrons move, and where there are no other particles with mass in the vicinity.
Second, you can use this idea to have interesting conversations about particle physics. For example, you can discuss how the Glashow-Weinberg coupling constant changes the strength of the electromagnetic force needed to balance the weight of a proton. You could also discuss how finding new fundamental forces or adding new dimensions could change this number even more.
See examples of its use
Electromagnetic force is the force that causes atoms to stick together. Atoms are made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Protons and neutrons are called nucleons.
Electrons orbit the nucleus, or atomic core. When atoms bond, it is because electrons from each atom interact with one another. This happens because they have a negative charge and they are close to each other.
When atoms do not bond, it is because they have no negative charges and they are not close to each other. This prevents them from interacting with one another. The strength of the electromagnetic force depends on the ratio of the elementary charges:
This ratio is very large, about 6ѧ10³ (septillion) times larger than the elementary charge of the electrostatic force. As such, the strength of the electromagnetic force between two protons in an atom is roughly 6ѧ10³ times weaker than the electrostatic force between them.
Watch videos about it
Since we are very limited in what we know about electromagnetism, it is important to understand how we calculate EM strength.
YouTube videos can be a great way to learn about new concepts. Many people who create videos on new concepts use their videos to highlight the important parts of the concept and how to experiment with them.
Some of the best YouTube channels for understanding physics concepts are The Physics Girl, Veritasium, Science Channel, and Brain Stuff. All of these channels have many subscribers and do a great job of explaining the concepts.
Learn more about it
Now, let’s look at how the strength of an electric field that will balance the weight of a proton has been measured.
An electron is a negative charge, and a proton is a positive charge. Because these charges are opposite, they attract each other. An electron has a smaller mass than a proton, so when you put enough of them close together, the electrons will fall toward the protons because of this attraction.
You can use this fact to figure out how strong an electric field needs to be to cause electrons to fall. By placing an electrode in a given liquid and measuring how quickly the electrons move from one electrode to the other, you can determine the strength of the electric field in that area.
This method was used in experiments conducted at Japan’s High-Voltage Electrotechnical Laboratory (HVEL) in Kawasaki using kerosene as the liquid. The results showed that for every kiloNewton per square meter (kN/m²) of force exerted on an electron, it would take 1 volt (V) of electrical force to pull it away from its natural motion.