The cytochrome c gene is an important component of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence.
It gives cells their name, as it allows your mitochondria to function as a chemical radical generator. This allows your cells to produce energy via their protein molecules.
This gene is found in both humans and animals. However, the human version is much smaller than its animal counterpart. This makes it harder to observe its effects on health, but not impossible!
Using the day 7 data, what was the frequency of the p allele? The answer may be surprising: very rarely! Only 1 in 30 people has the p allele and it is probably only seen in people with certain other mutations in mtDNA that cause sickle cell anemia.
Second, we must calculate the probability that a person has the cg allele
The cg allele is rare, having an occurrence of 0.019 in the population. This means that 1 in millions of people have the cg allele!
To estimate the frequency of the cg allele in your target population, use a probability model. In this case, you can use a probability model because you know so little about this group of people.
Models used to estimate frequencies of traits are called likelihood models. Likelihood models can be either linear or logistic. In this case, we will use logistic-type models.
The likelihood model for the cg allele is very close to a logistic-type model which matches its behavior.
Finally, we can use a normal distribution to show whether our data is significant or not
In this case, we see that the cg allele frequency is approximately 6% in our population. This is how much of the genome is present as an alternative to g.
This value is not found in any of the other human genomes, making this gene a rare one. This makes sense as it was only selected for in connection with cancer treatment.
Given its rarity, it is hard to estimate its importance. However, given its function as a cancer drug, we should be paying attention to it!
Its importance can be seen through gene expression profiling as well. By looking at which genes are controlled by the cg allele and seeing whether or not they are functional, we can determine their importance.