Water disinfection is an important part of water safety. There are a few different methods to achieve disinfected water, but the most common are boiling, chlorination, and oxidation.
Chlorination is the process of adding chlorine to water. This is typically accomplished by putting table salt into water and then adding bleach or other strong chlorine compounds.
However, this can become difficult when dealing with very poor quality water that does not mix well. In this case, it may be better to use a different method of chlorination that works with the quality of the water you have.
Oxidation is the removal or destruction of electron-rich molecules or ions by reaction with other chemicals such as oxygen. In this article, we will be discussing how to effectively use oxidation to remove pathogens from your drinking water via a basic solution of hydrogen peroxide and chlorine dioxide.
Chemistry of the reaction
The chemical reaction that takes place when hypochlorous acid and chlorine dioxide mix is very important. When these two chemicals mix, a new compound forms called chlorine dioxide.
This compound is the oxidizing agent in this mixture, which means it is able to burn things. Specifically, it burns bacteria when it comes into contact with it.
Chlorine dioxide is a white solid that can be applied to water. It is not volatile, which means it does not evaporate easily. It is also very stable, so it does not break down easily under normal conditions.
The main uses for chlorine dioxide are industrial and agricultural. In the industrial field, it is used to disinfect pools and spas. In the agricultural field, it is used to clean produce before they are sold.
Producing hydrogen peroxide
Hydrogen peroxide can be produced in a number of ways. Most methods use water and some use oxygen in addition to hydrogen.
Hydrogen is usually obtained from hydrocarbons, or compounds consisting of hydrogen and carbon. Oxygen is usually obtained from oxygen-containing compounds like saltwater or organic material like plants or animals.
Some methods include exposing hydrocarbons to strong oxidative conditions like heat or oxidation. Using a catalyst, like a special salt or metal, can also help produce hydrogen.
The most common way to produce large amounts of H2O2 is through the chemical process called electrolysis. In this process, an electric current is passed through a liquid solution containing H2O2 to separate the two components of the solution, H2O2 and water.
Producing chlorine dioxide
Chlorine dioxide is produced by a chemical reaction between chlorine and oxygen. This reaction takes place in a solution containing sodium chloride, or common table salt.
Chlorine is present in tap water, which makes it easier to produce chlorine dioxide. It can also be purchased in its pure form.
ClO2 + HO → ClO2− + H+
This reaction occurs when hydrogen peroxide and sodium chlorate are combined. The resulting mixture is then left to sit for a period of time, allowing the chemicals to dissipate. Eventually, chlorine dioxide is left in the solution.
The chemical compound CLO2− dissociates into Cl− and O2−. These atoms then combine to form ozone, which is an odourless white vapour.
Using hydrogen peroxide as a bleach
Hydrogen peroxide is typically used as an alternative to chlorine bleach. It has some advantages over plain chlorine bleach, such as being less irritating to the skin and providing more lasting antimicrobial action.
Because it is not as strong a bleach, however, it requires more time to effectively whiten fabrics. In fact, many “hydrogen peroxide cleaners” do not actually contain any hydrogen peroxide–they are just plain water with a strong scent of lavender or citrus added in.
How does hydrogen peroxide work? Like other oxygen solutions, it works by attacking the bonds that hold molecules together in substances like urine, feces, and sweat. This breaks down the substances and removes them from the laundry. How does hydrogen peroxide work? Like other oxygen solutions, it works by attacking the bonds that hold molecules together in substances like urine, feces, and sweat.
Using chlorine dioxide as a bleach
Chlorine dioxide is used in industrial applications as a bleach for textile products. It is also used to sanitize foods and agricultural products.
For both of these applications, chlorine dioxide is produced by passing chlorine through an oxidation process.
This produces chlorine monoxide, which then reacts with oxygen to form chlorine dioxide. The chemical reaction for both of these processes is:Cl−(aq) + O(g) → ClO−(aq) + O 2 (g)
Since it is an intermediate product, it must be somehow removed from the solution before being able to react with other chemicals. This is why it must be stored in a solution of water and sodium carbonate, or “shock” it with sodium carbonate.
Safety and storage concerns
When dealing with chlorine dioxide, safety is a top priority. The chemical is highly effective at killing microorganisms, but it can also be harmful to humans.
Chlorine dioxide is listed as a hazardous substance by the EPA and must be handled in a safe manner. Workers who produce or handle chlorine dioxide are required to wear protective gear and must be trained in safety procedures.
How you store chlorine dioxide can also impact safety. Since it is an unstable compound, it will break down over time. If your pool chlorine does not contain stabilizers, it will break down into plain chlorine and water within a few hours or days, depending on how much you use.
Storing it in a closed, heavy-duty container with lots of moisture protection will help prevent breakdown of the chemical over time.
Hydrogen peroxide breakdown by-products
When hydrogen peroxide comes into contact with chlorine, two chemicals are produced: chlorine and oxygen. Chlorine is a poisonous gas, while oxygen is a colorless and odorless gas.
Chlorine can be reabsorbed into water through the use of sodium thiosulfate, also known as “sodium hypochlorite”. Sodium thiosulfate is an antiseptic that prevents harmful bacteria from growing in water. It does this by breaking down into chlorine and sodium sulfate, which both act as disinfectants.
Sodium sulfate is not harmful to humans, but it can be dry so its added benefit as an antiseptic may not be effective. However, it does help prevent the spread of germs in the water.
Chlorine dioxide breakdown by-products
Chlorine dioxide is a powerful bleach and disinfectant. It is used in water treatment to break down organic contaminants like bacteria and viruses, as well as to filter out some types of chemicals.
When chlorine dioxide is added to water, it combines with the water molecules to form new compounds called chlorinated derivatives. There are several of these compounds, depending on the amount of chlorine dioxide added to the water.
Some of these compounds are toxic, including trichloromethane and dichloromethane. These two compounds are considered hazardous air substances by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
However, there is no evidence that exposure to these compounds via normal use of treated water causes any health problems.
More information on these compounds can be found on the EPA website.
Drinking water providers must test for and monitor for these chlorinated derivatives in drinking water. Water providers do this using analytical and statistical procedures that comply with EPA regulations.
As an extra precaution, people with severely compromised immune systems may be advised to avoid drinking tap water or bottled/boiled water for short periods of time due to concerns about fluoridatedwater.
This precautionary measure is taken due to the possibility that very sensitive people could experience skin or mouth irritation from contact with fluoridated water.
There are no health concerns associated with short-term exposures to chlorinated derivatives in tap water according you CDC.
More information on this precaution can also be found on the CDC website.
CDC also advises people who have been exposed to contaminated drinking water containing chlordane residue not to shower or bathe for at least 12 hours after exposure.
This is because chlordane can remain on the skin and in the hair follicles and bathing could wash it off and into the body.
How do I know if my tap water contains chlorine dioxide?
Most communities test their municipal drinking waters for a wide range of contaminants each day. The results from these tests provide information about whether your tapwater contains any contaminants at all.
[span style=’font-family: ‘arial black’ , helvetica , sans – serif ‘font – size : 18 px ]Another way communities monitor their drinking waters is through consumer confidence testing.[ / span]Consumer confidence tests focus on finding a small number of specific contaminants in your drinking water.-If any of these specific contaminants are found then a public notice is issued so that you can find out what they are and what you can do about them.